Chapter 12

213 J.A.J Gowlett, “What actually was the Stone Age Diet?”, Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, (September 2003).
214 C. Boesch and H. Boesch, “Hunting behaviour of wild chimpanzees in the Tai National Park”, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, (1989).
J. Goodall, “Continuities between chimpanzees and human behaviour”, Human Origins, (1976).
215 Peters & O’Brien, “The early hominid plant–food niche: insights from an analysis of plant exploitation by Homo, Pan and Papio in eastern and southern Africa”, Current Anthropology, (1981).
216 (*)
217 United States Department of Agriculture nutritional database.
218 Mary G. Enig, PhD and Sally Fallon, Know your fats, (2000).
219 McIlwain, H. and Bachelard, H.S., Biochemistry and the Central Nervous System, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, (1985). Estimates the composition of the brain to be (approximately) 78% water, 10-12% lipids, 8% protein, 2% soluble organic substances, 1% carbohydrate and 1% inorganic salts.
220 Solomons, N. W. and J. Bulux. “Plant sources of provitamin A and human nutriture.” Nutrition Review, July 1993.
221 Sally Fallon and Mary G. Enig, “Vitamin A”, (March 2002).
222 Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, Schurgers LJ, Knapen MH, van der Meer IM, Hofman A, Witteman JC, “Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study“, The Journal of Nutrition, (November 2004).
223 Alli Starter Guide – booklet that comes with a packet of Alli pills. Produced by GlaxoSmithKline
224 (*)
225 (*)
226 (*)
227 (*)
228 (*)
229 (*)
230 (*)
231 Beef, Porterhouse steak, raw, trimmed to 1/8″ fat (USDA reference – URMIS 2145),
232 Beef, Sirloin, lean only (URMIS 2244),
234 Gordon Wardlaw, Anne Smith, Contemporary Nutrition, seventh edition, McGraw Hill (2009).
236 Felton C.V,. Crook D., Davies M.J., Oliver M.F., “Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and composition of human aortic plaques”, The Lancet, (October 1994).
237 Ewa Stachowska, Barbara Dolstrokeogongowska, Dariusz Chlubek, Teresa Wesolstrokowska, Kazimierz Ciechanowski, Piotr Gutowski, Halina Szumilstrokowicz and Radoslstrokaw Turowski, “Dietary trans fatty acids and composition of human atheromatous plaques”, The European Journal of Nutrition, (October 2004).
240 International Monetary Fund, “World Economic Outlook Database, for the year 2009”, (April 2010). Georgia (115), Tajikistan (149), Azerbaijan (82), Moldova (125), Croatia (43), Macedonia (84) and Ukraine (112) for the low fat/high heart disease countries. Austria (10), Finland (12), Belgium (14), Iceland (19), Netherlands (7), Switzerland (4) and France (15) for the high fat/low heart disease countries.
241 (*) Daily Mail, 14 August 2009.
242 Andrew J. Murray, Nicholas S. Knight, Lowri E. Cochlin, Sara McAleese, Robert M. J. Deacon, J. Nicholas P. Rawlins, and Kieran Clarke, “Deterioration of physical performance and cognitive function in rats with short-term high-fat feeding”, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal, (10 August 2009).
243 JR Merrill, RG Holly, RL Anderson, N Rifai, ME King and R DeMeersman, “Hyperlipemic response of young trained and untrained men after a high fat meal“, Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, (A Journal of the American Heart Association), (1989).
244 (*) FSA: (
247 Bruce Fife, The Healing miracles of coconut Oil, (2001).
248 World Health Organisation figures for 2002.
249 International Margarine Association of the Countries of Europe (IMACE), “Code of Practice on Vitamin A and D fortification of margarines and fat spreads”, (May 2004).
250 DEFRA, Family Food Survey, (Table 1.1), (2008).
251 (*)
253 (*)
254 (*) CBC News: 9 July 2008.
255 (*) “I can’t believe it’s not butter”, Marketing Week, (29 May 1997)

"The Obesity Epidemic is the most comprehensive demolition job on the arrogance and ignorance of the health profession I have ever read".
Barry Groves Author of Trick and Treat: How 'healthy eating' is making us ill